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Joy And Pleasure By William Henry Davies

"Joy and Pleasure" by William Henry Davies is a poem of class. The title of the poem is in form of a symbolism where "joy" symbolizes poverty while "pleasure" symbolizes riches; this can be further proven in line 1 and 2 respectively where joy and pleasure are personified: "Now, joy is born of parents poor/ And pleasure of our richer kind".
With simple diction, alternate end rhyme scheme pattern, symbolism and personification; the readers are able to see the contrasting opinion embedded in the poem.

There are lots of simile in the poem for the purpose of juxtaposition. In line 9 "Joy’s like a Bee" in line 11 "pleasure’s like a greedy

Analysis Of When This Carnival Finally Closes By Jack Mapanje

Not all 14-line poem is a sonnet; and this one by Jack Mapanje is a good example. It is a free verse that centred on politics and leadership. The diction is quite simple and rurual-like in nature with a beach setting in terms of words like "bamboo" "dancers" "bonfire" and more.

The voice of the poem foresaw what will become of the actions of a certain leader referred to as "brother". The voice of the poem also saw how the leader's colleagues will betray and mock his reign_ line 2-4:
"...these very officers
Will burn the scripts of the praises we sang to you
And shatter the calabashes you drank from".
The voice of the poem believed the activities of the leader was unnecessary; in line 1 it was referred to as a "frothful carnival" because his officers were not faithful; they will go to the extent of burning his bamboo hut under the guise of giving him a "true traditional burial".

According to line 6 "Become the accomplices to your lie-achieved world!" proves the voice of the poem is certain that the leader's ways are not straight; he's a corrupt leader. This tells the readers that the voice of the poem is an unbiased one who sincerely hits the  nail in the head.

There are other noted poetic devices in the poem titled "When This Carnival Finally Closes" by Jack Mapanje; and they are as follows:
(1) "scripts of the praise" in line 3 is a metaphor
(2) "drumming veins" in line 2 is a symbolism
(3) "...a God? The devil!" in line 14 is an oxymoron
(4) "bamboo hut on the beach" in line 7 is an alliteration
(5) "And at the wake new mask dancers will quickly leap" in line 11 is an imagery
(6) "What did he think he would become, a God? The devil!" in line 14 is a rhetorical question
(7) "And shatter the calabashes you drank from . Your/ Charms, these drums, and the effigies blazing will" in line 4-5 is an enjambment

The themes are betrayal, change, governance, politics, death, achievement, waste, corruption, etc. In terms of betrayal, the voice of the poem foresaw the leader's betrayal. Change in the poem is seen from line 11-13:
"And at the wake new mask dancers will quickly leap
Into the arena dancing to tighter skins, boasting
Other clans of calabashes..."
Governance and politics can be considered the motivation for crafting this poem "When This Carnival Finally Closes" by Jack Mapanje. Death was not directly mentioned in the poem but was suggested with phrases such as "drumming veins dry" "giving their hero a true traditional burial". The achievement of the leader is linked to corruption when the voice of the poem referred to it as "your lie-achieved world!"

As of this moment, whenever Malawian poets come to mind the first name to remember is David Rubadiri followed by Jack Mapanje. He was born 25 March 1944 in Mangochi District of Malawi. Jack Mapanje has made the list of African poets whose poetry landed them in prison; other African poets of the same predicament are Chris Abani, Wole Soyinka, etc. Jack Mapanje was put in prison by a ruling tyrant without charge.

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the Leo with wings flying)

At Fifteen I Went With The Army by Arthur Waley

A boy went with the army to a war at the age of fifteen but met a desolate or rather deserted home at the age of eighty .When he got to the village, he couldn’t recognize his home until a man he met in the village showed him what used to be his house (now outgrown by weeds, trees, and pheasants). According to line 9-10
“In the courtyard was growing some wild grain;
And by the well, wild mallows.”

The house was so taken by weeds to the extent that he made porridge and soup off the grains; sadly “no one to eat them with”. The unhappiness of the boy even extended till the end of the poem where he said
“I went out and looked towards the east,
While tears fell and wetted my clothes”

Probably, one may be forced to wonder why the boy looked towards the east. It might be that the only possible place his life could restart is in the east, it may also be that east is the cause of his sorrow.

“At Fifteen I Went With The Army” is a poem written by an unknown Chinese poet but translated by Arthur Waley. This’ another example of poem written about war or communal attack; (naijapoets has analyzed similar

Analysis Of The Anvil And The Hammer By Kofi Awoonor

This is another African poem that focuses its subject on the conflict of culture_ sharing the same theme with the poem titled "Piano and Drums" by Gabriel Okara.
One can hear the poem speaker's willingness to balance both culture or lifestyle by saying in line 11-12 "Sew the old days for us, our fathers/ That we can wear them under our new garment". The issue of colonialism is not out the picture in this poem "The Anvil and The Hammer" by Kofi Awoonor. The alien culture came into Africa via colonialism to mix with the ways of the Africans. The speaker in the poem found himself between the two opposite lifestyles which made him liken himself to an iron to be reshaped by the anvil and the hammer.

The poem is said to be cultural inclined with a colonial setting. Structurally, The Anvil and The Hammer by Kofi Awoonor is a free verse; a free verse is a poem that does not use consistent meter patterns, rhyme,
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