Thursday, 4 November 2021

1.0 WHAT IS AGRICULTURE? Agriculture can be defined as the art and science of cultivating the soil, producing livestock, preparing livestock feeds, processing crops and livestock products for man; and the process of selling excess crops and livestock. OR Agriculture may also mean the production of crops, rearing of animals and the general management of soil.

(i) Provision of food
(ii) Provision of employment
(iii) Provision of income
(iv) Provision of raw materials for industries
(v) Provision of foreign exchange
(vi) Provision of shelter and clothing
‘. “
(vii) Rural development
(viii) Provision of market for industrial goods
(ix) Afforestation
(x) Provision of means of transportation

(1) PROBLEM OF LAND TENURE: Land tenure is the way land is owned in a society which often discourages agricultural land utilization leading to fragmentation of land. Also increase in population and soil erosion affect the use of land.


(i) Adoption of crop rotation

(ii) The strict adherence to the Land Use Decree of 1978. .
(iii) The use of fertilizer must be encouraged.

(2) PROBLEM OF BASIC AMENITIES: Basic amenities like electricity, cinema, standard schools, good and



(i) Excess products should be purchased by government.

(ii) Government should provide storage facilities to farmers at subsidized rate

(iii) Farmers should form cooperative societies to build storage and processing facilities

(iv) Education on usage

(v) Provision of loans to farmers.


(7) LACK OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION: Most of the farmers in the developing countries are illiterate and cannot adopt new innovation in agriculture.



(i) Employment of more extension agents

(ii) Government must embark on anti-illiteracy campaign

(iii) Non-governmental organizations should be involved in educating the farmers.


(8) POOR EXTENSION ACTIVITIES: Extension workers are well-equipped for the dissemination of recent information in agriculture. Also there is language barrier, and inadequate vehicles.



(i) Provision of more vehicles to extension workers to ease transportation problem

(ii) Employment of more extension workers

(iii) Farmers should be trained by the extension agents on recent agricultural technology.


(9) POOR TOOLS AND FARM MACHINES: Farmers still rely on crude tools like cutlass, hoe, rake etc. which are time wasting, and bring low income and yield to farmers.



(i) Government should purchase farm machines like tractor, plough, harrow for the farmers to hire at subsidized rate

(ii) Cooperative societies should procure machines for their members

(iii) Local fabrication of farm machinery and equipment should be encouraged

(iv) Establishment of tractor hiring units

(v) Training of skilled manpower for maintenance

(vi) Provision of loan to formers.


(10) UNSTABLE POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES OF GOVERNMENT: Government comes with different policies and programs which often tell on the farmers.



(i) There should be continuity of government programs.


11. POOR MARKETING SYSTEM: Due to lack of good roads, storage facilities, poor marketing channels and nonfunctional food commodity boards, farmers find t very difficult to control the price of their farm produce.



(i) Establishment of good and functioning marketing channels to discourage activities of middlemen

(ii) Government should create enabling marketing environment for the farmers

(iii) Farmers should form unions so as to control price

(iv) Government should form functional food commodity boards

(v) Government should buy excess produce from farmers.

12. PROBLEM OF PESTS AND DISEASES: Diseases and pests reduce the quality and quantity of farm produce, and farmers income. This discourages farmers from further production.



(I) Government should establish pests and diseases control units

(ii) Government should supply chemicals and insecticides to farmers at subsidized rates


13. UNPREDICTABLE CLIMATE: This includes drought, excessive rainfall and sunshine which often reduce farm activities, and lead to low yield or crop failure.



(i) Good irrigation and drainage system should be practiced.


14. INADEQUATE AGRICULTURAL INPUTS: The include chemicals, improved seeds, seedlings, anima materials and fertilizers that are scarce and expensive.



(i)Availability of fertilizers

(ii) Provision of day old chicks and other starting stock

(iii) Government should supply farm inputs at subsidized rates

(iv) Cooperative societies should procure inputs, and supply to farmers at subsidized rate

(v) Provision of feeds

(vi) Provision of drugs and vaccines to livestock

(vii) Provision of pesticide at subsidized rate.

15. SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTITUDE TOWARDS FARMING: Farming is being regarded as a profession for the dropouts or those who never do well in the society.



(i) Government should make agriculture more attractive to young people by giving them necessary inputs like land and materials for farming

(ii) Mass literacy should be adopted.

16. SMUGGLING: This is illegal importation and exportation of food commodities which often place money in the hands of few individuals.


(i) Government should encourage production of some commodities like rice, maize etc.

(ii) Government should ban the importation of certain, food commodities.

17. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION: This includes environmental pollution1 soil erosion, flooding and deforestation which often affect crop and animal production.



(i) Erosion control should be embarked upon by the government

(ii) Farmers must be trained on environmental management.

Four stages are very pronounced. They are:
1. Hunting and Gathering
2. Subsistence Farming
3. Cash Crop Production
4. Commercial Farming

HUNTING AND GATHERING: The early man lived by hunting wild animals and gathering wild fruits which was characterised by the use of primitive tools like stones, bows and arrows, traps, clubs and ploughs.


SUBSISTENCE FARMING: This is a system of farming whereby a fa?*iër cultivates crops and rears animals in order to produce food for use by himself and his family only.



1. Labour is provided by the farmer and his family

2. Small area is used

3. Crude implements like cutlass, hoe etc. are used

4. The produce from the farm are not for sale

5. Little capital is required

6. The yield is also very low


CASH CROP PRODUCTION: This is advanced stage of. agricultural production in which the farmer cultivates cash crops like cocoa, kola nut, rubber etc. for export.


COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE: This is production of cash crops and animals in large quantity.



1. It is very expensive to practice

2. Large area of farmland is required

3. Requires the use of farm machines like cultivators, tractors etc.

4. Labour is both manual and mechanical

5. Yield or output is very high

6. Marketing of products is specialized

7. 1t involves a lot of research into the different aspects of production

8. It requires good record keeping.



Commercial Agriculture

1. Large scale farming is adopted.

2. Mechanization is the major practice

3. Ideal for mono-cropping, intensive animal production and fish farming.

4. Highly capital intensive which can be got from the bank.

5. Labour is highly specialized and expensive.

6. Marketing of products is specialized

7. Research into all aspect of agriculture is required

8. Highly scientific with no superstitious beliefs.

9. Yields and other returns are high, meant for everybody.

10 Processing of final products is common

11 It requires good record keeping so as to make good decisions.


Subsistence Agriculture

Small scale farming is adopted Mechanization is not practiced.

Ideal for mixed cropping. mixed farming, bush fallowing and shifting cultivation.

Low capital requirements which can be provided by friends, money lenders and family members. Labour is from friends, family members and cheap.

No special marketing skills are required

No search activity is required.

Highly traditional and superstitious in nature. Yields are low, meant for family members.

No processing of any form is practiced.

No record keeping is done and so no improvement is expected.



Government from time to time has been playing an important role ri order to supply food to her citizens. The roles include:

(I) Provision of loans and credits to farmers

(ii) Provision of subsidies to farmers which are given by Government, cooperative societies, multinational organizations and foreign agencies like Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAQ), Agricultural

Development Bank (ADB) etc.

(iii)Establishment of Agricultural Programs like:

(a) Farm settlement scheme

(b) Operation Feed the Nation

(C) Green Revolution (d) School to Land Program

(e) National Directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure

(f) River Basin Development Authorities

(g) Agricultural Development Project

(h) National Agricultural Insurance Scheme

(i) National Agricultural Land Development Agency (NALDA).

(j) National Accelerated Food Production

(k) Agricultural Sector Rehabilitation Project

(I) National Accelerated Industrial Crop Production Program. (NAICPP)

(iv)Provision of storage and processing facilities

(v) Provision of social amenities like water, electricity etc.

(vi) Provision of good road

(vii) Provision of quarantine services

(viii)Provision of agricultural education and extension services

(ix) Provision of agro service centers

(x Creation of pest and disease control unit

(xi) Establishment of research institutes



The non-governmental organizations perform several roles in agricultural development. They enjoy government support and assist in producing crops, high quality planting materials and good animal breeds; provide funds for agricultural extension projects, improves farmers awareness, funding research etc.

Some of these research centers are:

1. Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), Ibadan.

2. Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN), Benin City

3. National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI), Badegi,

4. Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR), Benin city.

5. National Institute for Horticultural Research (NIHORT), Ibadan

6. Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan,

7. National Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMAR), Lagos.

8. National Institute for Fisheries and Fresh Water Research (NIFFR), Kainji.

9. National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike Umuahia.

10. Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI), lbadan

11. National Veterinary Research Institute (N VRI), Ibadan.

12. National Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), Kaduna.

13. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan.

14. Leather Research Institute of Nigeria (LRIN), Zaria.

15. Lake Chad Research Institute (LCRI), Maiduguri.

16. lnstitute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Zaria.

17. Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IART), Ibadan.


Other research Institutes around Africa are:

18. West Africa Rice Development Agency (WARDA), Sierra Leone.

19. Catholic Relief Services in Gambia.

20. International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA)

21. Intemational Crop Research Institute for Semi

Arid Tropical (ICRISAT)

22. Adventist Relief Agency in Gambia & Ghana.

23. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)

24. Hinger Project, and

25. World Vision International in Ghana.



This area is concerned with the laws guiding the acquisition and utilization of agricultural lands.



Land tenure can be defined as t economic, legal, political arrangement regarding the ownership and management of land and its resources, It can be broadly classified into:

(1) Communal/primitive ownership

(ii) Inheritance

(iii) Individual

(iv) Leasehold

(v) Rent

(vi) Gift

(vii). Freehold

(viii) Tenant at government will.


COMMUNAL LAND TENURE: This s a system where land belongs to a community arid the head decides the basis of sharing out land to every adult member.



(1) Every adult member has right to use the land.

(2) It’s cheap

(3) It is ideal for commercial farming

(4) Cooperative farming can be practiced.



(1) Non-indigenes cannot acquire land

(2) Sale of land not allowed

(3) It cannot be used as collateral security to obtain loan

(4) Unmarried women may not be allotted land

(5) Allotted land can be revoked by a new leader

(6) It leads to the fragmentation of land into small and scattered units.


INDIVIDUAL LAND TENURE: This is a system of ownership where the land can be acquired by an individual either male or female.



(1) Male and female can acquire any size of the land based on the financial resources available

(2) Permanent crops can be cultivated

(3) Land can be used as collateral for loan

(4) There is no discrimination in securing land

(5) The owner has authority as to how the land is used.



(1)Only the rich may acquire land at certain areas

(2) Land may be diverted to non-agricultural use

(3) Land may be acquired in fragments.


INHERITANCE TENURE SYSTEM: This is a system where a piece of land is transferred from one generation to another generation.



(1) This is open to agricultural use

(2) Permanent crops can be cultivated

(3) Land can be used as collateral for loans

(4) Children yet unborn are provided for

(5) The land can be maintained by using fertilizer.



(1) It leads to land fragmentation

(2) The size of land allotted may not be good for commercial farming

(3) Sharing of land is a delicate issue that brings enmity among family members

(4) Sale of land is not accepted in some families

(5) Women are not often listed as beneficiaries during land allocation.


LEASEHOLD TENURE SYSTEM: This is a contract existing between a person called the LEASOR and another called LEASEE for the lease of the land for a specified period of years which may be 25 years, 50 years or 99 years.



(1) it enables the farmer to have maximum use of land

(2) It is available for permanent crop cultivation

(3)An agreed sum of money is paid for the period of lease



(1) The farmer cannot develop the land beyond the lease agricultural terms

(2) Land on lease cannot serve as collateral security for loan

(3)A lease agreement of less than 50 years is not ideal for permanent crops.


GIFT TENURE SYSTEM: This is a system in which a piece of land is given out by a person voluntarily to another for the good work done by that person.



(1) Land on gift is irredeemable

(2) Permanent crops and record keeping arc accepted

(3) Land can be used as collateral security for loan

(4) It ensures the maximum use of the land for increased production.



(1) The ownership of the land can be challenged at any time if given unwisely

(2) If the land given by Government is not backed by proper documentation, it can be retrieved

(3) There may be disagreement over such gift among family member.


RENT TENURE SYSTEM: This is a system whereby a tenant pays some amount for the period of using the land to a stated landlord and is usually a short period of time compared to leasehold system.



(1) Ideal for food production

(2)The farmer makes maximum use of the land during rentage period.



(1) It affects long term planning

(2) Development on the land is very slow

(3) The land cannot be used as security for loan.


PURCHASE OR FREEHOLD TENURE SYSTEM: This is a system whereby a person pays a certain sum of money for land acquisition.



(1) It can be used for agricultural purpose

(2) Perennial crops can be grown

(3) There is a maximum use of land to increase production

(4) It is open to both male and female to acquire land

(5) The land can be used to source for loan.



(1) Land may be expensive

(2) Size of fertile land may be too small

(3) Prospective farmers may not have access to the agricultural land

(4) Farmers may fall into the hands of fraudsters when negotiating for the land.


TENANTS AT GOVERNMENT WILL: This system is where a piece of land is given out to farmers by the government by paying a stipulated amount of money.



(1)Poor and rich farmers have access to the land

(2)The land is widely used for production purposes

(3)The land is cheap to acquire.



(1) Permanent crops cannot be grown

(2) It cannot be used as collateral to secure loans

(3) There are usually lots of bureaucracy in the allocation, regulation and control over such land

(4) The land can be revoked if the farmer fails to meet the term of agreement.



The land use decree was enacted by Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo (Rtd) on 28th March, 1978 but was reversed under Land Use Act 1990. The Land Use Decree of 1978 vested land ownership in the country on the Federal Government of Nigeria. The State Governments were empowered to allocate land to individuals on behalf of the Federal Government. For a person to claim ownership o land, such a person must obtain certificate of occupancy which will guarantee the true ownership of such land. Adult Nigerians of 21 years and above have a right to acquire land.



(i) To encourage efficient use of the land

(ii) To create and re-allocate land opportunities for farmers

(iii) To reduce the controversies over the use of land

(iv) To manage all the land resources within the nation

(v) To bring about proper planning of land uses


Advantages of Land Use Decree

(1) It has made land acquisition relatively easier for new entrants into agriculture

(2) It has reduced the number and frequency of court cases over land ownership

(3) It has facilitated borrowing of capital for further investment in agriculture

(4) Availability of and provision for large land holdings encourages large scale agriculture

(5) It prevents fragmentation of land since land acquired under the decree cannot be shared into bits

(6) Reduction in boundary disputes since survey of acquired land is mandatory for occupying rights to be granted.


Disadvantages of Land Use Decree

(1) Cost of land survey has escalated

(2) Land acquisition process has become bureaucratic and often met with bottlenecks

(3) It has encouraged dishonesty through illegal sale and back-dating of ownership/title deeds after 1978

(4) Land is not necessarily allocated to every potential agricultural developer

(5) Land may be acquired by influential people for non-agricultural purposes

(6) The state governor can abuse his power by revoking the certificate of occupancy prematurely

(7) It may delay the execution of projects as the governor might not sign the certificate of occupancy on time.



1. Security of tenure: To safeguard farmers against unreasonable eviction.

2. Ensuring proper land use: Action can be taken to ensure that agricultural land is not unnecessarily diverted for non-agricultural purpose.

3. Government projects: Large tracts of land for government sponsored development of large scale farms or resettlement schemes.

4 Land improvements: There is the need to carry out large scale improvement such as irrigation, drainage, soil water conservation in order to ensure a reasonable standard of efficient production for a long time, and such a requirement should be obligatory irrespective of land tenure system.

5. Influence on size of holdings: The need to prevent land fragmentation and encourage consolidation of small holdings into large units

6. Freedom of enterprise: To encourage freedom of farming in cases where there are regulations or traditional views that militates against such freedom.

7. Control of production: Government can insist on production of certain produce and curtail the production of others through the control of land use

8. Land litigation: Government intervention reduces the number of land litigation amongst the citizens.




4.0 LAND

Land is defined as the solid part of the earth cwst in which agricultural activities can be practiced.



(1) It is a free gift of nature

(2) It is limited in supply

(3) It is immobile

(4) It can appreciate and depreciate in value.

(5) It is subject to the law of diminishing return

(6) The reward for land is rent.



Land has two major uses:

(1) Agricultural land

(2) Non-agricultural land


Agricultural Uses Of Land

1. For production of food crops

2. For forestry

3. For wildlife and games reserve

4. For fishery

5. For livestock grazing


Non-Agricultural Land Use

(i) For construction of roads, bridges, railway lines, airport etc

(ii) For social/recreational centres such as cinema houses, amusement parks, churches, mosques, schools, hospitals, cemeteries, markets, stadia, etc.

(iii) For building offices, residential houses, banks etc.

(iv) For industrial building

(v) For mining.



(1) Land tenure system

(2) Population size

(3) The size of useful land in a country

(4) Climatic factors

(5) Religious beliefs

(6) Soil factors

(7) Topography

(8) Cultivation practices

(9) Infrastructural demands on land

(10) Government policy.



Agricultural Raw  Material



Textile and pharmaceutical

Coffee seed

Vegetable oil, livestock feed mill

Coffee seed

Beverage and pharmaceutical

 Groundnut seed

Soap, livestock feed mill, vegetable oil

Palm kernel                                             

Vegetable oil, soap, livestock feed oil

Maize seed, rice, wheat & sorghum

Beverage, bakery/flour mill, livestock, feed mill

Tomatoes and pepper

Food processing/canning

Citrus and Banana


Rubber latex                                           

Plastic, tyre, shoe manufacturing


Beverage, soap


Beverage, food processing, pomade/body cream


Beverage, pharmaceutical


Furniture, matches, stationery


Textile and rope


Food processing

Cattle & its products                       

Shoe, food processing,, dairy, livestock feed mill 


Fertilizer, food processing


Textile, shoe, food processing


Shoe, livestock feed mill, dairy




armaceutical Furniture, matches, stationery Textile and rope Food processing Shoe, food processing,, dairy, livestock feed mill 


1. Agriculture provides food for industrial workers.

2. Industries produce machinery and equipment for agricultural use.

3. Agriculture can provide market for industrial products.

4. Agriculture and industry compete for labour

5. Rise in agriculture bring about good development in agricultural sector.

6. Agriculture provides raw materials for industries.

7. Industries provide a large range of products for the farmer to buy.

8. Industries produce agro-chemical for agricultural use.

9. Industries provide storage facilities for agricultural produce.

10. Agriculture allows a shift of factors of production to industries.



Environmental factors affecting agricultural production are:

(a) Climatic factors (b) Biotic factors (C) Edaphic factors.

Climatic Factors: The following are climatic factors that

affect agricultural production.

(i) Temperature (ii) Sunlight (iii) Wind (iv) Rainfall

(v) Relative humidity (vi) Cloud cover.

Biotic Factors: These are living things and include (i) Parasites (ii) Soil micro-organisms (ñi) Weeds (iv) Pests and diseases (v) Competition (vi) Predation (vii) Symbiosis.

Edaphic Factors: These are soil factors and the major factors are: (i) Soil pH (ii) Soil texture (iii) Soil structure (iv) Topography (v) Soil fertility/organic matter (vi) Soil type.

READ ALSO: [ Analysis Of No Coffin No Grave By Jared Angira ]


Post a Comment

10 Most Trending Stories

Popular Posts